Going Both Ways

As the final Career Seminar of the 2004 New York ActorFest industry conference, casting director Joseph McConnell moderated a panel of his professional colleagues, examining their considerations in casting actor talent for stage, film, and television. The actor-oriented seminar, titled "Going Both Ways: Adapting Yourself for Stage and Screen," became a roundtable discussion, revealing important insights from five of New York's major players: Arnold Mungioli, Pat McCorkle, Todd Thaler, Cindy Tolan, and David Vaccari (see accompanying sidebar for credits). This article, adapted from the transcript of that seminar, shares what they had to say about their experiences and practices, what they expect of actors, and their recommendations to actors for artistic and career advancement.

Do Training and Experience Matter?

When reviewing submissions for an audition, casting directors examine each actor candidate regarding talent and "type": look, size, age, etc. Are other considerations, such as training and specific experience, crucial to gaining an advantage? When a part is particularly difficult to cast, says Arnold Mungioli, "it depends partly on how badly I need them: for example, if a director's concept requires an unusual combination of characteristics, such as an Arab actor who has circus skills and can do Shakespeare. If I find an actor with some experience who meets all of these criteria but hasn't done a lot of stage work, then I'm willing to explore outside the boundaries."

A diverse skill set is most advantageous, Mungioli recommends: "I think it's good to get a broad background and explore everything that you can do. If you have no Shakespeare credits on your résumé, let us know that you have training to handle the language. If you're a pop singer who has never done a stage musical, put some show tunes into your repertoire."

An actor's training can be an imperative consideration for Pat McCorkle. As casting director for the upcoming Broadway production of "The Glass Menagerie," she must balance the producer's desire for stars with the director's need for disciplined stage actors. "We try to go back and find out who was trained," says McCorkle, "and where did they get their acting 'muscles.' The muscles required to put forward the role of Tom in the stage play are different than those an actor would need for film."

Yet in casting for the feature film version of "Rent," David Vaccari was less concerned about an actor's prior film experience, since "there are very few people who can sing those roles and are authentic. Just like the real rock-and-rollers that we've used from the beginning have learned about the stage from doing the show, they're going to be learning about movie acting if they are in this movie." Casting roles for "Rent," even for the original stage production, was "based on who was really right for the parts, based on their own personalities and their own raw talent."

For John Turturro's movie "Romance & Cigarettes," Todd Thaler needed to draw hidden performing talents out of film actors, as the picture is a quasi-musical involving singing and dancing: "Initially, the characters were supposed to only lip-synch to popular music recordings. In fact, at the end, John had a lot of them singing live and blended in with the track of the original. John is the kind of draw that made it pretty easy to get actors to do something courageous, something that they wouldn't have normally considered doing. Having known each other since undergraduate school, John and I have this sort of secret language. We can bat the names of some actors around whom we would love to work with and start making phone calls."

A stage actor's limited screen experience proved no issue at all for Cindy Tolan when casting the film "Kinsey": "The producers came to New York to make sure they cast New York theatre actors; it's an incredible wealth of talent out there. For me, casting film is really about what the person's face looks like. The most interesting faces are what you'd like to put into a film. It's like putting together a painting. With theatre actors, they're always three-dimensional; there's not just one dimension. As artists, they're always bringing themselves, and they're bringing previous work or training or experience or whatever, so it's more alive, I find."

Thaler concurs: "My brother Jordan Thaler is a casting director and works predominantly in theatre. For theatre, these guys need to know that actors can do it consistently eight times a week. And unless they're really courageous and their directors are really courageous, I think they are less likely to hire an actor for stage work who doesn't have training and have a way to work. For film and television, we quite often don't have that strict a demand put on us, because the parts are often so small and the directors can ask the actors to repeat the lines over and over again, multiple times, and eventually get something in the can. With the benefit of great editing and great directing, they cut and paste performances together."

"But," says McCorkle, "that relies upon a director looking for one particular quality that he is able to use—and that really is the key. He could see it so many times. When it comes to film and television, I find that sometimes the directors don't really understand actors, and they're really dependent upon us, as casting directors, to explain, 'Yes, this person can deliver while they're working on the visual as well.' Of course, some directors can pick up on all that stuff—the minute things. Film directors are stronger with that; TV directors usually don't have the time." Serving a visual medium, both Thaler and McCorkle agree that "there's often more typecasting in a sense for film and television than in theatre."

Breaking Down the Breakdown

When acting talent is being solicited for a project via casting breakdowns and ads in the trade papers, the casting director may be seeking different qualities depending upon the medium—whether it's for stage, film, or television. Are there subtle distinctions in the articulation of a breakdown that actors can pick up on and translate into the way they present themselves for the audition? According to the panel experts: not necessarily.

"Use intuition!" says Vaccari.

The problem with breakdowns, observes McCorkle, "is that we start off with a directive we're given by the director, hopefully, or producers, and we're to follow that. But, invariably, as we proceed in the process, it's redefined, often by seeing the responses and saying, 'That's not what I meant.' Sometimes you have one side where producers and directors are screaming at you that you're bringing in the wrong people, and then I've had others say, 'Gee, I know I said that wrong.' And sometimes as casting directors we'll have an idea, and we'll ask, 'Have you ever thought about doing it this way?' and making a change. I've done that both on stage and in film, where I've suggested to the director that they try something a different way, and it's worked out very well. That's hopefully in the artistry that we as casting directors can bring to the table. We're solving a huge problem. It's like a jigsaw puzzle: We're putting it together collaboratively—with the writer, with the director, with the producer. Ultimately, I think the actor has to just bring his best shot. Sometimes we don't know exactly what we want; we won't know until we see it. So, as auditioning actors, you should take in all the tools that you have. When it comes to film and television, you have to be honest about who you are. You would be well served to take classes where you get to see yourself on camera and figure out if your face twitches—'Oh, I really do do that'—so that you really see what your audition performance is doing, not what you want it to do or think it might do. What it is really doing. Because we see it; we see what you're really doing."

Self-Presentation for Each Medium

Fortunately, presenting yourself as an actor for both stage and screen does not require schizophrenia. For example, the panel found it nonessential for actors to submit one headshot and résumé for film and television and another for theatre. "Too expensive!" agree Mungioli and McCorkle. "And you'll never get it dead on right, anyway. You should just look like your headshot," continues McCorkle, seconded by Tolan. "If you have the money to make a reel, it's great," says Vaccari. "It might not get you the job, ultimately, but it might influence the choice. At a certain level, you'll want to see the person come in and audition. But it can delay the decision, and it can get you in the mix. It's kind of a calling card that's very useful to pique interest."

When Thaler gets a videotape or a DVD, "it may sit around for a while because it's not necessary for me to see it immediately. But then I'm really curious to know what is on those tapes and DVDs, so I plug them in and, even if it's just someone sitting in front of their own digital video camera with a dark background and doing something on their own, it can sometimes be really interesting, really effective, and be the catalyst that gets me interested enough to want to meet that actor."

Mungioli finds that the process of videotaping auditions is changed only to address the medium for which the tape will be used. For the audition, actors come "to do their work and to play their action, to make their choices as an actor. Just like an audition for any other medium—stage, film, television, industrial, whatever—an actor walks in the room and either knows who they're talking to, plays an action and has something going on, or just stands there and kind of recites the words and isn't terribly prepared. The same problems show up, at least from what I've observed, regardless of the medium. You're looking for the actors who are doing their work: actors playing an action." Yet Thaler observes, "When the audition's being documented on videotape, a level of self-consciousness can creep in. The more you do it, the easier it gets."

When legally permissible by the union, videotaped auditions can be just as valuable for stage work as for screen. In Tolan's experience, "there are times when the director or writer is out of town, and you can have somebody from the creative team in the room while you're documenting the live audition for them to see. You just run the camera, pulled back in full frame, and you tell the actor to audition for stage and not for the camera. You're just documenting, and people can get the job off of the documentation. You know you're auditioning and there's someone who needs to see it."

Both the type of project and the medium can influence any coaching the casting director may extend to the auditioning actor. When auditioning comedy for the screen, McCorkle says, "you've got to back off a little bit. I cast 'Chappelle's Show' for television, and there's no need for close-ups when you're doing 'Chappelle.' If you're doing something dramatic, you want to see the motion of the face or something. I will tell the actor I'm looking for this, and I may have them do it over and over until they get something that I think is presentable. But theatre is a whole different thing. I want the auditioning actor to be 12 feet away from me, and covering a space and creating a character."

Getting Help From the Casting Director

Yet Mungioli finds "there are many projects for which I need to prepare people. For example, for 'The Lion King,' it's often about going after young raw talent, and you need to work with them and develop them and keep going until they can walk in the audition room and do it. It's the same for film. If you see somebody who has the potential to solve the problem of casting the role, then you pursue it." Particularly, notes Vaccari, "because there are not always that many people who are right for every role, who you want to see do this role and create it in a movie or on a stage."

"And it just helps us do our job," elaborates Tolan, "because you don't want to keep searching and searching and searching. And we really want you to be good!"

McCorkle agrees: "That's a key issue that always surprises people: We really do want you to be good. We're going to do everything we can to make you good. Sometimes actors come in with an adversarial situation, and we will try anything we can that makes sense, that we can communicate with you. If we see that someone's going about a line reading consistently the wrong way, we may realize that it's a problem with the script. We can key you into that, that little trick there. Or perhaps there's something we've observed—maybe the producers and directors can't articulate it, but we've seen it—and we can effect an adjustment. We just want you to be good."

As casting director, adjusting an actor's audition to the medium often requires diplomacy.

Vaccari finds that "it depends on the level; you don't want to insult people. There's a certain way of saying it. I have been in a room with a mature actor who's done a tremendous amount of stage work, and I felt a little embarrassed to give him rudimentary direction about how to do a scene in this low-budget movie. But sometimes you have to do that, and put it in the best possible way so that he is not offended."

"I agree," says McCorkle, "that you might give an adjustment or two and do another take, or a second take, or a third take. But I think that after a certain point—knowing that I'm not going to be on the set myself—I just figure that's what the actor's instinct is, and there's a risk he's going to cost the project $20,000 in retakes. You can only go so far." For Thaler, there are those occasions when "you can suggest to an actor that we try it another way. And that's reasonable, for an actor to take direction. They welcome it, sometimes. So you say something like: 'You know, that was good, that was really good, but I want to try something like a complete left turn, and do it a different way completely. Like, just take all the volume out of it, or take all the energy out and do it very, very small.' And then you might, on that videotape, get something."

Adjusting the audition is not meant to imply the actor's work is not good. Mungioli suggests that actors should "see that the response that you elicit from us to work with you, or to try to get you closer to what we understand the director or producer wants, comes from what you bring to the table. If you walk in and say, 'Well, I'm a chameleon, I'm a blank slate, I'm going to wait for direction and do nothing,' that is not going to elicit from us a response of wanting to work with you and get you closer to what's wanted. If you walk in and make a really bold choice and do something wonderful, our response is more likely to be, 'Well, that's a terrific actor. Let me see if I can get them closer to what the director wants.' "

"Or sometimes," notes Thaler, "an actor has made a completely wrong choice, but you like them enough to want to give them a crack at trying something closer to what you had in mind." "But they made a choice," adds Tolan, "and you see a quality within that." Notes McCorkle, "For auditions, especially for film and television, actors don't have an opportunity to see the whole script. Frequently, what we're getting as casting directors is also only half the information. We might only know the situation, so we have to present actors that are flexible."

How to Dress and What to Know

Regardless of the medium, auditioning actors should present themselves appropriately. "Dress professionally," advises Vaccari. "It's a job interview." Wearing clothes that subtly inform the character can help. "If you're auditioning for a lawyer, you shouldn't come in wearing jeans," says McCorkle. "There's no trick to it, but if there's a character—especially in film and television, because the visual impact is influential—it helps if the director and/or producer can see it. If it's just completely wrong, they're going to bypass you faster. But whether you wear a blue shirt or a green shirt is not going to be the deciding factor." McCorkle also comments that trendy, revealing clothes generally detract from the audition. Furthermore, for a period project, an appropriate, intelligent choice of attire or shoes can favorably affect body language in the audition.

All agree it is not necessary to wear the identical audition clothes for a callback. What's most important, according to Mungioli, is that, as a professional, "you walk into the room acknowledging that this film you're auditioning for is a $76 million project, and that you want me to put you forth, to say to these producers, 'You have hired me for my taste and ability to discern, and of all the actors in the world, I believe you could rest your $76 million project on this person's shoulders.' And so you have to walk in dressed and presentable and groomed in a way that makes me, as casting director, feel confident in wanting to go forward and do that for you, the actor."

Moreover, it is the actor's responsibility to come to the audition informed and prepared. That includes preparation of audition materials, such as sides—although memorization is generally not required, or even recommended. "For an on-camera audition for film or television, you need to see the eyes," alerts McCorkle. "If that means the actor is holding the script and glances down occasionally, that's fine. Especially because they sometimes rewrite and change the sides for the audition or callback, and the writer's in the room and doesn't want to hear the old version." Reminds Mungioli, "It's not a memorization test. If I see actors stand in front of the camera or stand in front of me for a theatre audition struggling to remember the next word and not playing an action at all, well, that's not going to get you the part. Also, actors holding their sides, even if they don't need to refer to them very much at all, send a psychological message to the creative team that says, 'I am here giving everything; I'm giving to it from my own process, without any direction. So if there's anything you want to tell me, tell me.' "

Tolan agrees: "The audition should be work in progress. You have not been directed, so we don't want something that's already solid and inflexible, where you can't make an adjustment because it's already a performance in the room."

Looking for the Uniqueness

Todd Thaler credits his brother, casting director Jordan Thaler, with the following observation: "Think of the audition in three parts: Part one is everything that happens from the time the actor comes in until the actual audition; part two is the audition itself; and part three is everything that happens after the audition until the actor leaves. Quite often what happens in one and three is far more telling and far more important than anything that happens in two. You can learn a lot from chatting.

"I actually do a lot of general auditions," Thaler continues. "I meet actors without roles to give them. I don't make actors come in and do monologues or read sides; we just sit down and talk. And what I learn in those five minutes is what makes an actor tick. And for film and television, that is sometimes the thing that makes me want to bring someone in and introduce them to the director. Not the fact that they could pull off the waitress or the bartender or the orderly or the one-line day player part that I'm looking at them for. I already know that the director will get a performance out of this person who has told me the most incredibly interesting story about what makes him tick. You can't prepare a stock story; that doesn't work. Just tell me something real about yourself. It's kind of like a first date. But you have to be courageous, because you're not really ready to reveal all of that stuff on a first date, and I'm sort of suggesting that you be brave and be willing to share something a little bit more. I'm not looking for intimate details of your love lives and your sex lives, but to learn something that's really personal."

McCorkle understands: "I think we're looking for the uniqueness, as opposed to all the similarities. As actors, you are all unique instruments. We're looking for the uniqueness that you'll bring to the information, and therefore, hopefully, to the part—uniqueness that we can bring you to the director for." Mungioli experienced this on a recent casting project: "I just did 'The Entertainer,' a new reality television show, and they did a nationwide search for talent. The producers looked at everybody on digital tape, and part of the audition was an interview where we had to ask questions of the actors. Personality is what they were casting on, because the actual entertainment portion was only an element of what they were making 10 episodes out of. So they wanted to know what the candidates were really like. It was amazing to watch the number of actors who were so skilled and talented in what they did when they could hide behind material, but then completely lost focus and lost faith in themselves when they had to just talk about themselves and be interesting."

The Digital Age

In the digital age, now that computers and the Internet are ingrained into daily life, there are more and more ways for actors to present their credentials to casting directors. Likewise, technology allows casting directors many different ways to access information. So what is the fate of the ol' faithful 8x10 headshot and résumé? At Bernard Telsey Casting, materials are retained for reference, according to Vaccari: "Every time you audition for a movie or a play or a musical in our office, the pictures and résumés go into these huge binders and stay there. They have a 10-year shelf life, it seems; we just threw out résumés from 1993. And even though we threw the pictures out, we still kept the notes of all the sessions. So we have a really good record that we can refer to of everyone that's been in our office." And although the Telsey office doesn't retain demo reels, McCorkle does: "We keep a lot of the demo reels, the majority of them. And we usually keep the video auditions, depending on the project." Vaccari corrects himself: "Actually, we do keep the audition tapes as well. We have the auditions of every movie we've done. It's the personal reels there's just no room to keep."

Having sufficient space to retain reference files is a challenge for any casting office.

McCorkle prefers that actors not send her unsolicited materials: "Please don't send it [your picture, résumé, or demo] unless it's project-specific, because I'm not a collection for that. Just to send demos for the sake of sending demos is too expensive to start with, and, frankly, I don't have a place to put it. But we do enough projects that I think updated materials turn over with time."

However, Tolan reminds, it is good to let casting directors know when your work can be seen in something, either on stage or on screen: "A lot of actors want it known when they're actually working in something that we could see. That's part of what we have to do as casting directors. We're out seeing everything."

Be Diligent, Get Experience, Gain Confidence

Clearly, diligence can pay off, especially for the nonunion actor. Says Mungioli, "Those who are dedicated, who go to the EPAs and wait around to try to get into an audition, those who continue to increase their skills and improve their talent because they're taking acting classes and working hard, you start to see them at every opportunity there is for them to be seen. They are the people who inevitably cross over, because they are serious about themselves and serious about their craft and serious about their art—and they work. They're working all the time. They're working at getting into auditions, to get themselves in front of you. At some point, an opportunity will open up, they'll fill it, and they break through."

Offers Tolan, "When I cast a movie, I'm, like, desperate: I see everybody if I have to. In that moment, the deadline is so present that sometimes I don't care what an actor's done before—if they look good. For 'Kinsey,' there were over 100 speaking parts. At the end of it, I'd be opening up every day's mail and saying, 'Let's see this person. Set this person up, I don't care where they are.' " McCorkle confirms: "For film, the screening of possible talent comes through the visual." Both agreed, however, that is not usually the case for stage.

Says Thaler, "I have a folder on my desk that gets filled and filled and filled; sometimes pictures sit in there for months and months. But because a cover letter got my attention, or a headshot got my attention, or somebody's résumé and training got my attention, I stick it in there. Union affiliation is of no import. I meet actors for a general interview, and if they're interesting and someone I can consider for a project, then I will bring them in to audition."

"I think the issue is that we want the best person for the job," observes McCorkle, "and I don't think union affiliation, or lack of it, is really critical. It's a component only because it shows experience, and that depends on the role. All of us want to be inventive and creative and not cast the same people over and over again. So we are always looking for new people, and there's usually only two or three people that really fill all the criteria everybody needs."

Sometimes, inexperienced actors are simply not ready for the audition process. "At Telsey, we do a lot of 'real people' casting," says Vaccari. "We audition a lot of raw talent, so we have to see if there's something within them that's really worth working with to keep it going. For auditions, as actors, you really have to do your research: Try to get a script, if it's available, or do research on the project, so you know a little bit about it when you're coming in."

Thaler finds that "quite often the fear factor of auditioning is something that trips a lot of people up. The more you do it, the less intimidating it is. That's why I urge people to, for instance, respond to film-student ads. These are the future filmmakers, and some of them next year may be getting $50 million to make motion pictures. They'll feel like you helped them on their way, being in their little 20-minute student film. Being in those films helps you get a better understanding of the vocabulary of acting for the camera, and usually the pay for doing those things is a DVD that you can then use on your reel. But it also just helps with the drill of auditioning, of actually going in and getting comfortable with that format. I think a lot of actors shoot themselves in the foot in that audition situation because they suddenly think the stakes are so high and that there's this expectation for them to 'give us the whole ranch.' And, quite often, it's just the opposite: We want something small and simple. It's hard for you to know that if you don't get to do it a lot."

Final Words of Wisdom

Vaccari concludes that a career as a professional working actor "takes a lot of work. You have to really pursue this on a lot of different levels, in terms of being seen and in terms of taking classes and being prepared. It's really only for people who want to pursue it seriously. So if it's something you're casually considering, know that it's not going to come as an overnight success by any means. It's for people who want serious training, and who are going to stay with doing this for their whole lives."

"Everything is a process," notes Tolan. "You just have to approach an audition like, 'This is something that I'm going to get something from. I want the job, I can do the job, but how am I going to be a better actor? What am I going to learn from this audition? What can I use for the next time?' "

Thaler advises, "Anything you can do to broaden yourself—spiritually, emotionally—will make you bigger, better, deeper, richer actors. And the rest of it is all bull!"

"Adding to that," McCorkle says, "have fun in the audition, in the sense that you're saying, 'Okay, here are my three minutes, and this is my chance to play the part.' Don't sit there and second-guess what you think we're seeing behind the table; you've got that information. Show me how you're going to play this part—that's what I want to see. And have fun doing it!"

In the end, artistry and professionalism must also meld with real-life values. Mungioli encourages, "Please do not separate your social and political conscience from your work. With what is going on right now in this country, and what is going on right now in this administration—recent events and events we're going to see—remember that you are the artist, you are the spokesperson of the conscience of the people. As Harold Clurman said, you are the people who 'have the ability to make human an inhuman society.' So please go about your business and take responsibility for that."

Panel Member Credits

Joseph McConnell was nominated for a 2004 Artios Award for casting the Broadway musical "The Boy From Oz," starring Hugh Jackman. He has cast 10 Off-Broadway musicals, including "Jolson & Co.," "Always…Patsy Cline," "Zombie Prom," "After the Fair," and "Taking a Chance on Love: The Lyrics and Life of John Latouche," plus many regional productions and workshops. He has also assisted Stuart Howard and Amy Schecter, Mark Simon, and the late Howard Feuer on projects for stage, film, and television. He has formerly held staff positions with Paper Mill Playhouse, the National Alliance for Musical Theatre, the York Theatre Company, and Encompass New Opera Theatre. His current ongoing clients include Starlight Theatre of Kansas City and Feld Entertainment. He is a member of the Casting Society of America.

Pat McCorkle, C.S.A., McCorkle Casting, Ltd. Broadway: "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof," "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest," "The Ride Down Mt. Morgan," "Amadeus," "A Doll's House," "An Ideal Husband," "She Loves Me," "Blood Brothers," and "A Few Good Men." Off-Broadway: "Ears on a Beatle," "Killer Joe," "Visiting Mr. Green," "As Bees in Honey Drown," and "Mrs. Klein." Film: "Bereft," "Tony 'n' Tina's Wedding," "Basic," "Rollerball," "The Thomas Crown Affair," "Madeline," "Die Hard With a Vengeance," and "School Ties." Television: "The Wool Cap," "Hack," "The Education of Max Bickford," "Chappelle's Show," and AMC's "Remember WENN."

Arnold J. Mungioli, Mungioli Theatricals, Inc. (www.mungiolitheatricals.com), is currently casting "The Entertainer" for the E! Entertainment network and "The Lost Boy," a new play. Recent projects: "The Glass Menagerie," "The Ruby Sunrise," and "Sans Culottes in the Promised Land" for Actors Theatre of Louisville; "Bleacher Bums" (Chicago) (Artios Nomination, 2004); "The Lion King" (Disney/Stage Holding); Disney's "Aladdin"; "Duet" (Off-Broadway); Richard Maltby's "Sixties Project"; Stephen Schwartz's "Captain Louie"; Charles Strouse's "You Never Know"; Trinity Rep; McCarter Theatre; Chicago Shakespeare Theatre. Other: Executive director of casting, Disney Theatrical Productions; "Ragtime" (Artios Award), "Fosse," "Show Boat" (Artios Award), "Candide," "Phantom of the Opera," "Music of the Night," "Sunset Boulevard," "Kiss of the Spider Woman," "Joseph"; recipient of this year's Media Access CSA Award from the Governor's Committee on Equal Opportunity Employment for casting "based on ability rather than disability"; adjunct faculty, NYU Tisch School of the Arts. Arnold has worked internationally, teaching master classes and seminars in New York, Los Angeles, and Toronto and casting throughout the five continents of North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia.

Todd Thaler's credits date back to 1986. His most recent feature credits are John Turturro's "Romance & Cigarettes" and Wayne Wang's "Because of Winn-Dixie," both upcoming. Also among his credits: "The Professional," "Pollock," "Maid in Manhattan," "Streets of Gold," "Running on Empty," "My New Gun," "Night and the City," "Mac," "Illuminata," "Mad Dog and Glory," "Cop Land," and "Tumbleweeds." His television credits include Gene Wilder's "Murder in a Small Town" and "The Lady in Question," "Rated X," "The Lost Battalion," Peter Berg's brilliant drama series "Wonderland," and a season of the NBC comedy "Ed."

Cindy Tolan: Broadway: "Avenue Q" (2004 Artios Award), "A Year With Frog and Toad," "Medea" (additional casting). Off-Broadway: "Belle Epoque," "Big Bill," "The Carpetbagger's Children" (Lincoln Center Theater); "Rodney's Wife" (Playwrights Horizons); "The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui" (National Actors Theatre); "Necessary Targets" (Variety Arts); "Vienna: Lusthaus" (New York Theatre Workshop); "In the Blood," "Tartuffe," "Tongue of a Bird" (Public Theater); Vineyard Theatre casting director since 1999; Williamstown Theatre Festival 2003 and 2004. Film: "Kinsey," "The Ballad of Jack and Rose," "Over the Mountains," "Shall Not Want," "Duane Hopwood," "Loggerheads," "King of the Corner," "Casa de los Babys," "Personal Velocity," "Angela." TV: "Wonderfalls" (N.Y. casting). Member: C.S.A.

David Vaccari is a casting director at Bernard Telsey Casting. Recent film and TV: "Rent," "Carlito's Way: The Beginning," "Keane," "The Unseen," "Camp," "Pieces of April," "Four Lane Highway," "Whoopi," "Last Days," "Just Another Story," "Undefeated," "The Grey Zone," "Finding Forrester," and "The Bone Collector." Recent Off-Broadway: "A Second Hand Memory," "The Distance From Here," "Writer's Block," and "Humpty Dumpty." Recent Broadway: "Glengarry Glen Ross," "Hairspray," "The Rocky Horror Picture Show," "The Beauty Queen of Leenane," "Rent," "Wait Until Dark," and "The Capeman."